Understand Sleep: Science, Stages, and Better Sleep Tips

Sleep maintains our physical and mental health. It allows our bodies to repair and restore. It also helps us function correctly throughout the day. However, many people need help to get enough sleep. 

Sometimes, sleeplessness occurs due to stress or a temporary ailment. It is common and goes away quickly. However, in some cases, sleep loss turns into chronic insomnia, a matter of grave concern.

Chronic insomnia is a severe health complication that affects people around the world. A research study by the National Center for Biological Information states 33% overall prevalence of sleeplessness in adults. The risk increases with age and underlying health conditions like diabetes.

Today, we will explore the science of sleep, its stages, why dreams happen, and factors that affect sleep quality. We will also discuss ways to improve sleep.

Why Do We Sleep?

We sleep to keep our brain functions intact. We need sleep to process things and do daily chores effectively. The vital functions sleep serves in our body include;


Sleep allows our bodies to repair and restore themselves. It will enable our body to improve damaged cells and tissues.

Conservation of energy

Sleep helps us to conserve energy. When we sleep, our bodies slow their metabolism and use less energy. As a result, more energy is preserved, and we can use it to do essential tasks.

Brain function and cognitive maintenance

Sleep is essential for brain function and mental care. While we sleep, our body releases toxins for the body. It helps us to think clearly and learn new things.

Mood regulation

Sleep also plays a role in mood regulation. Sleeplessness initiates negative emotions such as depression and anxiety.

Guide to Understanding Sleep

The Stages of Sleep

Sleep is not a uniform state. It has certain stages. The four stages of sleep involve the following;

NREM1 (Non-Rapid Eye Movement 1)

This is the initial stage of sleep. Our brains remain active in this stage. We can quickly awake by slight disturbance.

NREM2 (Non-Rapid Eye Movement 2)

The second and more profound stage than NREM1. In this stage, our perceptions slow down, and our muscles relax.

NREM3 (Non-Rapid Eye Movement 3)

It is the deepest stage of sleep. Our brain waves prolong, making it difficult to wake up during this stage.

REM (Rapid Eye Movement)

Dreams occur during the fourth and last stage of sleep. Our eyes rush, and our brain activity is similar to when we are awake.

Guide to Understanding Sleep


We can’t understand dreams as they are complex phenomena. However, scientists believe that dreams may serve several functions, including:

Processing emotions

Dreams may help us to process feelings that we are experiencing during the day.


Dreams may help us to solve problems that we are facing.

Creative thinking

Dreams may stimulate creative thinking and problem-solving.

Guide to Understanding Sleep

What Affects Your Sleep Quality?

Among the factors that can have an impact on your sleep are:

Stress and anxiety:

Stress and anxiety can obstruct your ability to sleep and sustain it.


Eating a heavy meal and drinking caffeine or alcohol before bed can interfere with sleep.


Involving yourself in a physical activity right before may cause difficulty sleeping.


A noisy or uncomfortable environment can make falling asleep a task.

Medical Problems:

Conditions such as sleep apnea can cause problems with sleep.

Guide to Understanding Sleep

Practical Tips for Better Sleep

Here are some valuable tips for improving your sleep:

  • Establish a consistent sleep routine and adhere to it even on weekends.
  • Make sure your sleeping space is quiet, dim, and cozy.
  • Do not overuse caffeine and alcohol before bedtime.
  • Get regular exercise, but refrain close to bedtime.
  • Visit a primary care clinic if you have a medical condition affecting your sleep.
Guide to Understanding Sleep

The Importance of Sleep Hygiene

Sleep hygiene is an excellent practice to support healthy and high-quality sleep. Good sleep hygiene is essential for having restorative sleep. Here are some critical suggestions for healthy sleep hygiene;

Set a Peaceful Sleep Environment

Before going to bed, establish a calming routine. Have a soothing bath, or do gentle stretches. These activities help to prepare your mind and body for sleep.

Optimize Your Sleep Environment

Your bedroom should be calm, dark, and quiet. You can use earplugs to cut off surrounding noises if needed.

Consistent Sleep Routine

To improve your sleep, stick to a regular sleep schedule. It means going to bed and waking up simultaneously every day. Doing so helps regulate your body’s internal clock.

Avoid Alcohol Before Bed

On the one hand, alcohol makes you sleep faster. On the other hand, it reduces deep restorative sleep later at night. Hence, avoid using it before bedtime.

Limit Screen Time

The light from electronic devices like phones, TVs, and computers affects sleep by reducing melatonin production. Put your devices at bay an hour before bedtime to get the best sleep.

Exercise Regularly

Moderate activity during the day helps promote deep sleep at night. However, avoid doing exercise close to bedtime.

Manage Stress

Anxiety and over-thinking make falling and staying asleep harder. Try relaxing activities before bed to calm both mind and body.

Prioritize sleep hygiene and stick to healthy sleep habits. It will give you the advantage of better sleep and improved health.

Troubleshooting Common Sleep Problems

Many people regularly deal with sleep difficulties. Here are some common sleep problems and tips to overcome sleep problems:


Cognitive behavioral therapy helps with racing thoughts. Before bed, restrict electronics, follow a routine, and ensure that you optimize your bedroom for sleep.

Sleep Apnea

This condition causes breathing interruptions during sleep. See a doctor for potential diagnosis and treatment options like CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) therapy.

Restless Leg Syndrome

Uncomfortable leg sensations disrupt sleep. Iron supplements, magnesium, and hot baths before bed can help in mild cases.

Nighttime Bathroom Trips

Limited fluid intake before bedtime prevents frequent bathroom visits during the night. See your doctor to rule out more significant medical issues.

Anxiety and Stress

Relaxation techniques, therapy, and stress management help quiet racing thoughts at night.

Chronic Pain

Work with your doctor to optimize pain management and sleep positioning. Heat, massage, or acupuncture can also help.

Guide to Understanding Sleep

PHNJ | The Solution to Your Sleeping Problems

Are sleep troubles keeping you up at night?

Don't hesitate to see Prime Health of New Jersey if problems persist.  

With their guidance and the right sleep troubleshooting tactics, you can pinpoint solutions for your situation.

Schedule an Appointment

Patients Also Ask

Can I survive on 4 hours of sleep?

Surviving on 4 hours of sleep is possible but not ideal. It can give rise to various health complications. Hence, have 7-9 hours of sleep daily.

What is the best time to sleep?

Keeping in mind today’s life scenarios. It is best to sleep by 10 p.m. Also, aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night to maintain a healthy routine.

Which sleep is better, day or night?

Sleeping at night is usually preferable as it helps us remain fresh and energetic throughout the day. So you can manage daily tasks efficiently.

How can I cure my sleeplessness?

You can cure sleeplessness by following a sleep schedule. Also, make a comfortable sleep environment and perform relaxing activities. It will help you fall asleep quickly.

Key Takeaways

  • Sleep has a crucial role in maintaining our mental and physical health.
  • You can experience the advantages of good sleep by following a consistent sleep schedule.
  • A hot shower, a peaceful sleep environment, and limiting fluid intake before bedtime help with good sleep.
  • If you notice any underlying condition with sleeplessness, consult a doctor.
  • You can also visit Prime Health of New Jersey if sleep problems persist.
  • You can pinpoint solutions for your situation with their guidance and the right troubleshooting tactics.

Don’t miss our future updates! Get Subscribed Today!
Join Prime Health of New Jersey for exclusive updates and essential healthcare insights.

Our Team

Dr Farhan Malik
Dr. Farhan Malik Primary Care Physician
Dr Shoaib Malik
Dr. Shoaib Malik Primary Care Physician

Schedule an Appointment

with Prime Health of New Jersey today to start feeling better and living healthier.

Schedule an Appointment

Follow us

Choose your preferred appointment type?

Appointment Type Selection

Please select the type of appointment you would like to schedule:

Weight Loss Program

For those without insurance or preferring out-of-pocket payment, you’ll acknowledge responsibility for full service costs upfront. We’ll confirm your preferred appointment date and time upon submission.

Payment Options

Will you be using insurance for your visit?

Note for Insurance Patients

Select insurance provider and enter policy details. Providing insurance information allows us to verify coverage and confirm your appointment time.

Self Pay

For those without insurance or preferring out-of-pocket payment, you’ll acknowledge responsibility for full service costs upfront. We’ll confirm your preferred appointment date and time upon submission.